Samsung India, the country’s biggest and most trusted consumer electronics brand, today announced the launch of the world’s first Wind-Free Room Air Conditioner & System Air Conditioner in India.
The new air conditioners have integrated Samsung’s exclusive Wind-Free™ Cooling technology into its design – providing customers with a cooler indoor climate and optimal energy efficiency without the discomfort of direct cold airflow. The Wind Free Room Air Conditioner packs in the world’s first 8 Pole series and Anti corrosion Durafin condenser, especially designed for India’s harsh climatic conditions.
Wind Free Room AC range is available at all leading retail outlets from a starting price of INR 50,950 to INR 74,260 while Wind Free System AC range is customizable with 1 Way Cassette, 4 Way Cassette & Mini 4 Way cassette as per the end user’s requirement. The customers can experience this unique technology at ACREX 2018 at BIEC, Bengaluru.
“In the air conditioning segment, direct cold air dispersion and sky rocketing electricity bills are two problems that today’s customers are weary of the most. The world’s first Wind-Free™ Room Air Conditioner & Systems Air Conditioner from Samsung addresses both of these issues together, providing unparalleled cooling comfort, while guaranteeing optimum energy efficiency. Customer centric innovation lies at the core of our brand promise and this product pivots around this very approach. The new technology is especially designed to cater to Indian consumer’s specific needs and preferences, given the severe climatic conditions here,” said Mr. Vipin Agrawal, Director, System Air Conditioning Business, Samsung India.
The new lineup provides ambient condition by maintaining comfortable room temperature using Wind-Free™ cooling technology to gently disperse cold air through 9,000 to 21,000 micro air holes. A two-step cooling system, which first lowers temperatures in ‘Fast Cooling Mode’ and then automatically switches to ‘Wind-Free™ Cooling Mode’, creating ‘still air’ once the desired temperature is achieved. This approach also reduces energy consumption by up to 72 percent compared to Fast Cooling mode. The unique product Architecture of this range of air conditioners also contributes to its superior cooling performance. The upgraded structure’s wider inlet allows for more air to be drawn in at once, while the optimal width and angle of the outlet ensure that air is cooled and expelled faster, farther and wider to reach every corner of the room.
Recommended new electrical safety standards to better protect private tenants have been published for consultation
Housing Minister, Heather Wheeler, has published new safety recommendations to better protect private tenants by reducing the risk of electric shocks or fires caused by electrical faults.
Five yearly mandatory electrical installation safety checks for all private rented properties and safety certificates for tenants, to prove checks and repair work have been completed, are part of a package of independent recommendations to improve safety.
This builds on other measures already introduced or planned to improve the quality of private rented properties including fines of up to £30,000 for rogue landlords and agents and banning orders for the worst offenders.
According to recent data, tenants in the private rented sector face a higher risk of electrical shock and fires caused by electrical faults in their homes compared to social housing tenants.
Heather Wheeler said: “Everyone deserves a safe place to live. While measures are already in place to crack down on the minority are already in place to crack down on the minority of landlords who rent out unsafe properties we need to do more to protect tenants.
“That’s why we introduced powers to enable stronger electrical safety standards to be brought in along with tough penalties for those who don’t comply.
“We want to ensure we strike the right balance between protecting tenants while being fair for landlords. So I want to hear from as many people as possible whether these independent recommendations are the right approach.”
These recommendations include:
5 yearly mandatory electrical installation safety checks for all private rented properties.
Mandatory safety certificates confirming installation checks have been completed along with any necessary repair work provided to both landlord and tenants at the beginning of the tenancy and made available to the local authority on request.
A private rented sector electrical testing competent person’s scheme should be established to ensure properly trained experts undertake this work. This would be separate from existing building regulations competent person.
Landlord supplied electrical appliance testing and visual checks of electrical appliances by landlords at a change of tenancy should be promoted as good practice and set out in guidance.
Two housing associations have been found to have breached a regulatory standard after they failed to carry out safety checks on a number of their properties.
The Regulator of Social Housing concluded Vivid and Raven Housing Trust had breached its Home Standard, but both associations have kept their top governance rating despite the issues uncovered.
In 2015 Raven Housing Trust found out that electrical safety checks had not been completed on a number of its properties, some of which were overdue for several years, but failed to inform the regulator at the time.
The regulator said the overdue work that had not been completed was considered to be “potentially dangerous” and required “urgent remedial action”.
Raven only recently reported the electrical safety issue to the regulator alongside a second issue it had uncovered relating to water safety. Hundreds of its properties were not subject to water testing to check for signs of Legionella in water tanks because of issues with a newly procured contract, potentially affecting a large number of tenants.
Despite Raven failing to inform the regulator of the electrical safety issue back in 2015, it has kept its top rating for governance. The regulator said the new leadership at the association had “overseen a comprehensive programme to rectify the underlying causes of these failures and prevent them arising again”.
A spokesperson for Raven said: “The safety of our residents throughout this process has been our number-one priority. We have co-operated fully with the regulator and have put in place new health and safety systems and a new management team as well as fully auditing and improving our processes to ensure that our systems are as robust as possible going forward.”
They added: “It should be noted that the regulator has kept our governance rating at the highest level (G1) because it recognises that the leadership team has comprehensively addressed the causes of these breaches.
“Raven Housing Trust remains committed to the highest standard of service to its residents and will continue to work to ensure that that they are housed safely and securely.”
Vivid, which manages 30,000 homes, discovered a number of its properties were without gas safety certificates for several years, the regulator revealed.
During the merger of First Wessex and Sentinel Housing Association to form Vivid last year the organisation reported to the regulator that a “low number” of homes had been found without valid gas safety certificates.
Most of these properties had been without certificates for a “considerable period of time” the regulator said, and some for a number of years.
The outstanding gas safety checks have now been completed and Vivid has carried out a review which found that the issue arose because of inaccurate data about the presence of gas appliances in some of its properties. It has developed an action plan to stop this happening in the future.
The regulator concluded Vivid failed to meet its Home Standard and there was the potential for “serious detriment” to its tenants as a result.
No further action will be taken because Vivid has remedied the situation, the regulator said. Vivid has kept its G1 rating for its governance.
Vivid has been approached for comment.
This article will take a closer look at the regulations and requirements associated with installing cables in suspended ceilings.
Suspended ceilings are often provided in commercial and similar premises. They generally consist of a grid of light metal bars, usually having an inverted ‘T’ section, into which ceiling tiles, recessed luminaires (light fittings) and ventilation grilles, for example, are installed (see Fig 1).
Surface-mounted luminaires, smoke detectors and similar items are sometimes installed to the underside of the ceiling. The void above a suspended ceiling, which accommodates the tension wires or other means by which the grid is suspended from the building structure, is commonly used for the routing of wiring systems and non-electrical services, such as pipework and ductwork.
Supporting of electrical cables
Some of the requirements applicable to cables in suspended ceilings are embodied in Regulation Groups 522.6, 522.7 and 522.8 of BS 7671. In particular, Regulations 522.8.4 and 522.8.5 call for cables to be supported, either continuously or at appropriate intervals, such that no damage or undue strain will occur to the cables themselves or to their terminations.
It is inadvisable for cables, including insulated and sheathed cables to BS 6004, to be laid directly on a suspended ceiling grid for a number of reasons, including:
- The cables are liable to be damaged, both during installation and later, by the sharp edges of the grid (Regulations 522.6.201 and 522.8.1). For example, a cable may come into contact with the cut edges of the grid at a notch where sections of grid intersect, or may become trapped between a ceiling tile and the grid, possibly when other trades are carrying out work in connection with the ceiling or other services routed above.
- The suspended ceiling grid may not have been designed to take the additional weight of cables, and may deform or collapse as a result.
Adequate support for cables for fixed wiring within a suspended ceiling void can be achieved in a number of ways to ensure that the cables are kept well away from the grid and from other services. For example, the designer may consider:
- Providing a conduit or trunking system, or cable tray (metallic or non-metallic), fixed at suitable spacings to the building structure above the ceiling, or to walls or other structural elements.
- Providing a catenary system as shown in Fig 2, to which the wiring system may be attached using proprietary clips, cable-ties or cable-hangers at appropriate intervals.
- Attaching the cables by suitable clips or cable ties to ceiling support rods.
Where suspended ceilings contain wiring systems in escape routes, the cables shall be supported such that they will not be liable to premature collapse in the event of a fire (Regulation 521.11.201 refers).
Final connection to luminaires
All connections, including extra-low voltage connections, are required to be made in accordance with Regulation 526.5 of BS 7671, such as a suitable accessory or enclosure complying with the appropriate standard.
Final connection of a luminaire can be achieved by the use of a luminaire supporting coupler (LSC) mounted immediately adjacent to the luminaire (for example mounted on a conduit box above it), keeping the final flex connection as short as practicable. Alternatively, a suitable plug and socket outlet (correctly mounted) may be used. Both of these options will provide a suitable means of isolation for the connected luminaire.
An advantage of the use of LSCs or socket-outlets is that it facilitates the completion of the fixed installation without the need to have prior knowledge of the exact locations of the luminaires. Moreover, the plug-in arrangement makes the final connection and testing, and subsequent maintenance or replacement of luminaires, particularly easy and quick to carry out.
However, the ease with which final connections can be made may be an invitation to the lighting engineer to relocate the luminaires within the suspended ceiling in order to achieve a different lighting effect or intensity. From the contractor’s point of view, such changes can result in longer lengths of flexible cords, which are often left to lie on the suspended ceiling for at least part of their length.
In order to ensure compliance with Regulations 526.1, 522.6.201 and 522.8.1, the following points should all be observed:
- Flexible cord connections to luminaires should be as short as possible (ideally, a vertical drop from the fixed connection to the luminaire).
- Flexible cords should not be allowed to rest on top of, or come into contact with the sharp edges of the inverted ‘T’ section of the ceiling grid.
- Suitable cord grips should be provided to securely retain the sheath of the flexible cord if strain is likely to occur on terminations within a luminaire. For some types of luminaire, a cord grip may need to be purchased separately.
For other guidance and publications please see the ELECSA website. Information about the ELECSA Domestic Installers schemes, visit www.elecsa.co.uk
Carrier Transicold is offering a provision to use R-513A refrigerant with its PrimeLINE container unit for customers seeking a refrigerant with lower global warming potential (GWP), or as a hedge against potential regulatory changes that may affect the availability and prices of traditional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants. Carrier Transicold is a part of UTC Climate, Controls & Security, a unit of United Technologies Corp.
“Phasedowns of traditional HFC refrigerants due to their higher GWP have raised concerns about their future availability and pricing, and some of our customers have indicated an interest in using R-513A as an alternative,” said Willy Yeo, director of marketing, global container refrigeration, Carrier Transicold.
R-513A, a new synthetic blend of the hydrofluoroolefin R-1234yf and R-134a, has a GWP of 631, which is significantly lower than those of HFC refrigerants conventionally used in container refrigeration systems.
For customers acquiring new PrimeLINE refrigeration units, Carrier Transicold is providing a “513A-ready” provision. It features a new digital scroll compressor designed for use with R-513A, as well as traditional R-134a. The units will be sold with R-134a, enabling customers to switch to R-513A at a time of their own choosing. Conversions require a simple kit that includes a software update and replacement filter dryer.
“Fleets that want to use a more sustainable refrigerant and also want to hedge against price and availability issues associated with synthetic refrigerants should first consider Carrier Transicold’s natural-refrigerant NaturaLINE unit,” Yeo said. “The NaturaLINE unit offers efficiency, quiet operation, tight temperature control, a deep frozen capability that goes to -40 degrees Celsius, and uses carbon dioxide, an ultralow GWP refrigerant.”
The company said that NaturaLINE unit’s combination of efficiency and use of an ultra-low GWP refrigerant reduces carbon emissions by 28 percent compared to earlier models.
With a GWP of 1, CO2 refrigerant takes refrigerated container customers to an end-state, bypassing the need for intermediate solutions such as R-513A, which will be subject to phase outs within the 15-year lifespan of units purchased today.
Availability of the 513A-ready PrimeLINE unit is anticipated in the first quarter of this year. Conversion kits will be available beginning later in the year.
Siemens has issued a patch for its SIMATIC S7-300 and S7-400 families of programmable logic controllers (PLCs)—industrial control systems used to remotely monitor and operate manufacturing equipment. This is in response to a year-old product vulnerability warning originally issued in December of 2016 and recently updated to include another version of the S7-400 line. The controllers were vulnerable to remote attacks that could allow cybercriminals to obtain login credentials to the system or reset it into a “defect” mode, shutting down the controller. Andrea Carcano, Co-Founder and Chief Product Officer commented below.
Andrea Carcano, Co-Founder and Chief Product Officer:
“These vulnerabilities are the same type of vulnerabilities that Stuxnet targeted. Stuxnet was able to leverage both known and previously unknown vulnerabilities to install, infect and propagate, and was powerful enough to evade state-of-the-practice security technologies and procedures. These latest vulnerabilities highlight the length of time it is taking to achieve “security-by-design” in automation equipment. ICS cybersecurity solutions that include artificial intelligence and machine learning help to harden security for Industrial Control Systems so that cyberattacks are detected and mitigated early in the kill chain. The industry should be well past air gap protection strategies that will not hold up under the realities of today’s interconnect operating environments and the ingenuity of cyber attackers.”
Those who breach the F-gas regulations in England and Scotland could face fines of up to £200,000 from April 1.
After receiving support from the industry, the Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases (Amendment) Regulations 2018 were laid before the UK Parliament on Tuesday (January 30). Subject to the expected approval, they will come into force within the next few weeks and enforcement bodies will be able to apply civil penalties from April 1. Wales and Northern Ireland have decided not to adopt civil penalties at the moment.
The new civil penalties would apply to a range of F-gas contraventions. The deliberate release of F-gases would remain as a criminal offence but there would still be the option to apply a civil penalty in such cases instead.
The maximum fine of £200,000 could be applied to offences such as the intentional release of F-gases to atmosphere, breaches of the quota limits for placing HFCs on the market, and failure to comply with an enforcement notice.
Fines of up to £100,000 are proposed for less serious offences, such as contravening requirements and procedures for minimising emissions or leakage and recovering F-gases from equipment. It would also be levied on non-F-gas certified individuals handling F-gases or on those not fulfilling the requirements to register for and verify quota usage.
A maximum fine of £50,000 could be applied to breaches including failing to correctly label equipment, failing to comply with the requirements for declarations of conformity for importing products containing F-gases and failing to keep records of F-gases used in equipment or F-gas sales.
More minor breaches such as not reporting within the prescribed deadline on F-gas production, import, export, destruction and feedstock usage could carry a maximum fine of £10,000
A consultation carried out by Defra in November received 27 responses, the majority of whom were in favour of introducing civil penalties. Respondents felt that civil penalties would be more effective and easier and less burdensome to apply than the current criminal penalties. The would also be seen as a deterrent, where the existing criminal sanctions were not respected and did not sufficiently deter non-compliance.
Fluke has produced this handy guide to help professionals in the electrical industry understand the benefits of thermal imaging technology.
Today’s thermal imagers are rugged, easy to use, and much more affordable than even just a few years ago. They have become a realistic solu¬tion for everyday electrical maintenance.
To use, a qualified technician or electrician points the thermal imager at the equipment in question and scans the immediate area, looking for unexpected hot spots. The imager produces a live image of the heat emitted from the equipment and with the quick squeeze of the trigger, a thermal image is captured. When the inspection is complete, upload the images to a computer, Apple, iPhone or iPad for closer analysis, reporting, and future trending.
While the imagers are easy to use, they are most effective in the hands of a qualified technician who understands electrical measurement and the equipment being inspected. The following three points are especially important.
Point one: loading
The electrical equipment being inspected must be under at least 40 % of nominal load in order to detect problems with a thermal imager. Maximum load conditions are ideal, if possible.
Point two: safety
Standing in front of an open, live electrical panel requires personal protective equipment (PPE). Depending on the situation and the incident energy level (Bolted Fault Current) of the equipment being scanned, this may include:
- Flame resistant clothing
- Leather-over-rubber gloves
- Leather work boots
- Arc flash rated face shield, hard hat and hearing protection or a full flash suit
Point three: emissivity
Emissivity describes how well an object emits infrared energy or heat. This affects how well a thermal imager can accurately measure the object’s surface temperature. Different materials emit infrared energy in different ways. Every object and material has a specific emissivity that is rated on a scale of 0 to 1.0. For thermal imagers to report accurate temperatures, the higher emissivity, the better.
Objects that have high emissivity emit thermal energy well and are not usually very reflective. Materials that have low emissivity are usually fairly reflective and do not emit thermal energy well. This can cause confusion and incorrect analysis of the situation if you are not careful. A thermal imager can only accurately calculate the surface temperature of an object if the emissivity of the material is relatively high, and/or the emissivity level on the imager is set close to the emissivity of the object.
Most painted objects have a high emissivity of about 0.90 to 0.98. Ceramic, rubber, and most electrical tape and conductor insulation have relatively high emissivities as well.
Aluminium bus, however, is very reflective, and so are copper and some kinds of stainless steel.
The good news is that most thermal imaging performed for electrical inspection purposes is a comparative, or qualitative, process. You don’t usually need a specific temperature measurement. Instead, look for a spot that is hotter than similar equipment under the same load conditions… spots that you do not expect.
Troubleshooting electrical systems
If you’re chasing breaker problems or load performance issues, here’s what to check. Once you’ve completed your repairs, take another thermal scan. If the repair was successful, the hot spot you first detected should have gone away.
Note: Not all electrical hot spots are loose connections. For a correct diagnosis, it’s smart to have a qualified electrician either perform the thermal scan or be present while it’s done.
Capture thermal images of all electrical panels and other high-load connection points such as drives, disconnects, controls, and so on. Wherever you discover higher temperatures, follow that circuit and examine associated branches and loads.
Compare all three phases side-by-side and check for temperature differences. A cooler-than-normal circuit or leg might signal a failed component. More heavily loaded phases will appear warmer. Hot conductors may be undersized or overloaded. However, an unbalanced load, an overload, a bad connection, and harmonics can all create a similar pattern, so follow up with electrical or power quality measurements to diagnose the problem.
Note: Voltage drops across the fuses and switches can also show up as unbalance at the motor and excess heat at the root trouble spot. Before you assume the cause has been found, double-check with both a thermal imager and a multimeter or clamp meter current measurements.
Connections and wiring
Look for connections that have higher temperatures than other similar connections under similar loads. That could indicate a loose, over-tightened, or corroded connection with increased resistance. Connection-related hot spots usually, but not always, appear warmest at the spot of resistance, cooling with distance from that spot. In some cases, a cold component is abnormal due to the current being shunted away from the high-resistance connection. You may also find broken or undersized wires or defective insulation.
If a fuse shows up hot on a thermal scan, it may be at or near its current capacity. However, not all problems are hot. A blown fuse, for example, would produce a cooler than normal temperature.
Motor control centres (MCC)
To evaluate an MCC under load, open up each compartment and compare the relative temperatures of key components: bus bars, controllers, starters, contactors, relays, fuses, breakers, disconnects, feeders, and transformers. Incorporate the guidelines above for inspecting connections and fuses and identifying phase imbalance.
Tip: Measure the load at the time of each scan, so that you can properly evaluate your measurements against normal operating conditions.
For oil-filled transformers, use a thermal imager to look at high- and low-voltage external bushing connections, cooling tubes, and cooling fans and pumps, as well as the surfaces of critical transformers (Dry transformers have coil temperatures so much higher than ambient, it’s difficult to detect problems with thermal imagery).
Incorporate the guidelines above for connections and imbalances. The cooling tubes should appear warm. If one or more tubes are comparatively cool, oil flow is probably restricted. Keep in mind that like an electric motor, a transformer has a minimum operating temperature that represents the maximum allowable rise in temperature above ambient (typically 40 °C). A 10 °C rise above the nameplate operating temperature will probably reduce the transformer’s life by 50%.
Updated findings to 2015 study argues that cooling sector is way behind schedule on switch from R404A; considers market status of alternatives such as R32
With significant cost and supply pressures hitting the industry in 2017, the latest Putting into Use Replacement Refrigerants (PURR) report sets out key developments within the cooling sector since the first BRA’s first findings were released in 2015.
2018 is expected to see severe restrictions on the availability of R404A resulting in a dramatic rise in the price of the product. This will further highlight the increasing importance of recycling or reclaiming gas in existing systems.
The BRA’s report said that the F-Gas regulation, which has introduced a quota on the availability of gases such as HFCs and PFCs to curb reliance on their use, contains just one outright ban. This restriction comes in place in 2025 and will bring an end to R410A, the most common air conditioning refrigerant used at present, by outlawing single split AC systems that contain less than 3kg of F-Gases and have a GWP of 750 or more.
The report said, “Whilst this ban is quite a long way in the future, it is likely to be the F-Gas phase down which will have an effect before 2025.”
“As soon as 2021, the F-Gas cap will be down to 45 per cent of its 2015 baseline, and refrigerants such as R410A (GWP 2088) will be taking up more and more of the quota for any supplier. It is clear that the AC industry needs to move to lower GWP refrigerants well before the ban in 2025.”
BRA added that any new systems now being installed should make use of a refrigerant that has a “reasonably secure” supply over its lifecycle.
“Existing R404A systems are either going to have be retired or have a change of refrigerant,” said the report. “Nevertheless, there are so many R404A systems in use that many of them will remain in service beyond 2020. These will have to be serviced with reclaimed or recycled refrigerant.”
Reclaimed R404A is not part of the phasedown and therefore seeing growing market interest, the report added. However, the BRA argued that cooling industry was well behind where it needed to be in terms of shifting towards alternatives for R404A.
With a relatively high number of systems in place, the report concluded that severe market stress was always anticipated to occur as a result of shortages of new supply of R404A. However, this market stress has arrived earlier than anticipated, according to the BRA.
The report said, “The period of maximum stress will be when new (virgin) R404A becomes short and there are still a large number of R404A systems in the population. In the first edition of this report it was felt that this was likely to occur around 2019 to 2021.”
“From the experiences of 2017, our views were clearly wrong! Product has been in short supply throughout 2017, and this is almost certain to continue into 2018 and beyond.”
The BRA said that flammable forms of gas would be vital to allow industry to curb the GWP of products used in future systems. These are anticipated to include lower flammability (A2L) gas such as R32 or HFO blends, as well as highly flammable A3 product that could include hydrocarbons.
The latest PURR report warned that A2L gas was not suitable for use in retrofitted systems and must only be considered in new technologies installed as a replacement for devices designed around R404A.
It added, “Regulation is in place already, specifying the charge size allowable for these refrigerants in certain room size, levels of occupancy and accessibility scenarios. This regulation is EN378, and it is important that end users, installers and designers are conversant with its contents.”
“Whilst EN378 recognises the A2L classification, in the wider world, products are classified as either non-flammable or flammable. This will mean there will be a requirement to undertake a risk assessment before installation of air conditioning equipment containing one of the new refrigerants.”
The BRA said that several manufacturers had begun to promote use of R32 in specially as a readily available replacement for R410A.
R32 is a widely available HFC with a GWP of 675 that the report said closely matched the properties of R410A. The report noted that R410A consists of 50 per cent R32
It said, “In the Far East, many millions of units containing R32 are already in operation, although it should be noted that flammable refrigerant regulations are very different from Europe.”
“Other HFC/HFO blends are being developed with lower GWP. Hydrocarbons can also be used in air conditioning units, but their much higher flammability means charge sizes are severely limited.”
Technique Learning Solutions is a popular training provider for Forces leavers eligible for ELCAS funding. Based in four UK training centres (Chesterfield, Watford, Stirling and Aberdeen), Technique has firmly cemented itself in place as one of the UK’s top providers of electrical, air conditioning and refrigeration, and PLC courses.
Its aim is to provide all candidates with the very best usable knowledge at a competitive price, and with more than 200 years of combined experience between its tutors, it certainly has the wealth of knowledge to fulfil that. In addition, its dedicated and helpful staff are all on hand to make the process of booking your course and claiming your funding as smooth as possible.
The process is a simple one for ELCAS users. First, you must decide which of the courses on offer most interests you and speak your training/resettlement officer. He/she will then give you authority to proceed to book the course. You will then be given your MoD 1746 form, which you simply fill out and fax it over to Technique. All that remains to be done after that is to forward over your Credit Authorisation Note (CAN Form) when you receive it and pay your personal contribution.
A recent benefactor of the ELCAS scheme, Corporal Joshua Davis, left the following review after his course: ‘I would 100% use and recommend this provider again in the future. The training, tuition, instruction, facilities and the overall relaxed and professional environment made for an excellent learning environment. Staff were extremely friendly and were always there to help. If there were any issues in the day, all staff were approachable, including the owner. Again, this added to the relaxed environment.’
Dates for Technique Learning Solutions’ 2018 courses are now available to view on its website at www.learntechnique.com